[Pdf Read] (Carthage Must Be Destroyed The Rise and Fall of an Ancient Civilization) Author Richard Miles
Rmy behind him His army disappears into the Alps with winter coming on In an pic journey he takes his army on a northern route with lephants and triumphs over ambushes and the Alps At the top he shows his army a panoramic vision of the Po Valley and all the riches that await themThe Romans are shocked when a Carthaginian army appears in northern Italy and Hannibal mops the floor with the first army they send against him Then he ambushes a much larger army at Lake Trasimene and destroys itFinally a year later comes the Battle of Cannae his masterpiece His much smaller army faces a Roman army of 80000 the largest army they ve ver assembled They are commanded by two consuls who rotate command daily and are terribly overconfident This battle is still studied in war colleges around the world Classic case of a smaller army being able to surround a larger armyHannibal opens the battle with his troops in an odd convex position the center of his line bowed out toward the Romans When contact is made deliberately the center gives way until there is a straight line The Romans sensing victory push harder on the center until the Carthaginian line is now concave and rapidly filling with Romans The Carthaginian wings turn toward the center and now their cavalry swoops in and starts chopping up the Roman rear The Romans are now surrounded and although they have superior numbers only the soldiers on the perimeter can actually fight They see their peril and attempt to retreat but they can only move toward the center making it too dense to ven raise their arms70000 Romans are killed and the rest are sold into slavery The road to Rome is wide open The Romans have no other army in Italy And here is where Hannibal reveals his fatal weaknessHe was afraid of urban warfare His father had been killed by a brick thrown from a roof He did send peacefeelers to Rome which were rejected and he did make a cavalry demonstration outside the walls of Rome but he made no attempt to besiege the city Instead he spent most of the next decade roaming and pillaging southern ItalyEventually the Romans wised up and invaded Tunisia This is when Hannibal is recalled to Carthage He and Scipio Africanus meet at Zama and for the first time Hannibal loses a battle The Carthaginians sue for peace This time they lose all their overseas possessions have a fifty year indemnity to pay and are truncated into a minor city stateOddly nough the two national heroes Hannibal and Scipio suffer similar fates They both become leaders of their cities and they are both driven into xile Hannibal wanders the Middle East constantly trying to stir up war against Rome He is finally cornered in Bythnia northeastern Turkey and commits suicide before his host can turn him over to the RomansFor the next fifty years Carthage becomes a loyal Roman client state providing transport for her armies and never missing an indemnity payment The city continues to be wealthy and prospers through tradeCertain lements in Rome however keep beating the drum for war with Carthage mainly to liminate the potential for an nemy to redevelop there When the Romans park an army outside of the city a delegation is sent to their camp to see if there is ANY way a war can be avoided The Roman terms the people have to move inland 18 miles Carthage will always be a menace if it has access to the sea The Carthaginians reject these terms and undergo a three year siege Like most sieges the population is uickly reduced to starvationCarthage had built a magnificent dual harbor a rectangular outer commercial harbor with warehouses and hundreds of uays and a circular inner military harbor with cranes and dry docks for 170 ships They had xcavated 250000 tons of hard rock to build these facilitiesThe final Roman assault was an amphibious attack and instead of stopping at the outer harbor sailed directly into the military harbor where they were able to gain a foothold and take the agora For three days against feeble resistance the Romans slaughter the people of Carthage as they inexorably burn and dismantle the city The Roman general rotates his troops to prevent them from going mad at the unrelenting slaughterFinally a delegation surrenders the remaining population 50000 men women and children are led away into a life of miserable slavery Carthage had a pre war population of 700000There were some holdouts The Carthaginian general and about 900 soldiers holed up in the citadel for weeks until starvation drove the general to desperation He deserts his troops and surrenders to the Roman general When his men realize they ve been betrayed they set fire to the citadel The Carthaginian general s wife stands on top of the citadel and sees her husband kneeling at the feet of the Roman general She screams very foul curse there is at her husband kills their children and throws them into the fire before jumping in herselfThe Roman general was ordered to raze Carthage to the ground after his army had completed its looting and a curse was placed on the location Thus nded the great city of Carthage after 700 years half of which was spent as a maritime superpower Coincidentally Rome also destroyed Corinth in Greece in the same year another ancient and proud city This was a warning to the rest of the MediterraneanAnd now as Paul Harvey used to say we get to the rest of the story1 120 to the rest of the story1 120 after its destruction Augustus decides to build a Roman colony on the site He is the first Roman mperor and he has thousands of discharged veteran soldiers to deal with so his new city is going to be one of their retirement homes The reborn Roman Carthage soon becomes a major city of the mpire and the regional capital in North Africa2 What goes around comes around 600 years after its destruction by the Romans the western Roman mpire is tottering They have been beset by barbarian invaders and one of the cruelest is the Vandals After a multi generational trek from Sweden through Germany France and Spain they ultimately settle in North from Sweden through Germany France and Spain they ultimately settle in North with Carthage as their capitalDuring one of the dying mpire s coups the mperor is killed and the usurper forces his widow to marry him She secretly sends a message to Genseric king of the Vandals in Carthage appealing for his help and promising to marry HIM if he will only kill this asshole Genseric responds by uickly sending a fleet to Rome He kills the usurper and gets his wife but he also gets his rewardIn an orgy of slaughter he decimates the population For two weeks the vandals loot and burn Rome When he leaves he takes with him thousands of their leading citizens to live a life of slavery Rome never recovers and the Buried empire is dead shortly thereafter The author is a great scholar and very knowledgeable about his subject The book jacket indicates that he hasven led archaeological digs in North Africa Perhaps that is part of the problem What I mean is that maybe those with a great love for archaeology should not write books like this one The title promises grand sweeping scope and the author gives us none of it He has an obvious love for the minute details He mploys his considerable talents in mining though religious inscriptions dietary information and so one All of this could have been very useful if used in support of a grand theme But what we get is one thing after another Nowhere does he offer any kind of theory for the utter destruction of a once mighty civilization Was Carthage murdered or was it suicide Did they have an achilles heel that betrayed them or fall to hubris or something anything at all Here again there is a lot of information but almost no penetrating analysis Suddenly they are no and there are no real lessons to be learnedIf you have a great interest in certain key details about Carthage I would pick up the book and mine the index Again a few points are illuminating on a smaller scale I had no idea for xample of the religious battle that took place during the 2nd Punic War as Hannibal tried to appropriate Hercules and the grand theme of Greek resistance to barbarians The origins of Carthage as it related to Assyrian conuest was also good Given his knowledge the book remains uite frustrating He needed a poet to come alongside There s usually a strict segmentation between an archaeologist writing about artifact digs and a revisionist historian reviewing antiue histories written by the winners The few writers who have tried to synthesize such styles Peter Wells Barbarians to Angels for xample often succeed only in part because they favor one method over another Miles gets the balance right by being appropriately skeptical of the historical sources on Carthage while still recognizing the value of preserving a linear narrative Miles recognizes the problem of traditional revisionism lionizing the party that traditionally was considered the bad guy He does not consider the Phoenicians the residents of Tyre nor the Carthaginians to be above reproach But he doesn t take the Romans word for anything regarding Carthage In fact he seems to mirror my own view that what Rome has been best at throughout its period as republic as mpire and as papacy is lying about veryone lse Miles wants to give us Carthage without praise or blame Carthage with all its warts The author moves further by showing us how the legend of HeraclesHercules plays in Carthage culture and how the universal Heracles cult displaced the Punic god of Melart Some readers only familiar with interpretation of narrative history may wonder why gods are considered in discussing Carthage Miles understands an important point There is not a strict division between prehistory and history instead there is a slow shift from oral storytelling traditions loaded with myth and written history that focuses on the acts of real humans separate from gods In analyzing the real world history of Carthage Troy Corinth t al one must be ready to adopt a mixed bag of folklore and fact It s understandable why Miles opened his book with details of the siege of Carthage but this made the book nd rather suddenly as he had already told the story of Carthage s final days Should it be changed to a linear story I m not certain that would work better Perhaps he could have given of a story on how Carthage lived again after its people were dispersed throughout North Africa. To its apotheosis as the greatest seapower in the Mediterranean And at the heart of the history of Carthage lies the xtraordinary figure of Hannibal the scourge of Rome and one of the greatest military leaders but a man who also unwittingly led his people to catastrophe. Until the publication of this xcellent book the preeminent text about Carthage was the 1995 volume Carthage A History by the French historian Serge Lancel This an outstanding contribution to the patchy knowledge we have of Carthage has just been clipsed One might think that part of the reason for this is that Carthage Must Be Destroyed did not need to be translated inevitably there were some places where Lancel s text became unwieldy It s far from that this is a better written asier to follow rounded book than Lancel sMiles begins with the Phoenicians the people who founded Carthage and goes on from there His style is at all times A Certain Justice (Adam Dalgliesh, enjoyable and his arguments well presented Apart from the obvious following of Carthage s history he goes into great depth about subjects such as the manner in which Hannibal aped the feats of Hercules in order to show that he had divine backing and how the Romans fought back against this religious propaganda He alsoxplains in depth how from the time of the Second Punic War onwards the Romans made it their business to portray the Carthaginians as untrustworthy perfidious liars and cheats This in turn allowed them to show themselves as heroic and steadfastAnyone who is interested in learning the full well what is known details about Carthage and its history needs to read this book I for one will be returning to it again and again in the future In my opinion leading Lancel s book is also a good idea Another interesting text is Daily Life in Carthage at the Time of Hannibal by the academic Gilbert Charles Picard Although it was written in the 1960s it has some useful information about Carthaginian culture Carthage has always been a background character in my personal narrative of history I vaguely knew it had been there for a few hundred years when its wars with Rome started I loved the story of Cato s Delenda The Shadow Reader est speeches in the Roman Senate and as a fan of military history I had read a few accounts of Hannibal s amazing victory at Cannae I knew that Dido mythic ueen of Carthage was a major character in Vergil s Aeneid And that was pretty much thextent of itBeyond all that I always had a sense feeling than thought that Carthage was somehow other not a part of the great Graeco Roman Mediterranean civilization that is a direct ancestor of my own There was something alien and vaguely decadent or corrupt about it As it turns out I had succumbed to 2000 year old Roman propaganda This book beautifully lays out the case for the critical role of Carthage and of the Phoenician culture of which it was the last bastion in the broader cultural history of the Mediterranean world Indeed the author had me hooked when in his introduction he uoted a few historians making disparaging remarks about the paucity of lasting Phoenician contributions to nearby civilizations and then rather diffidently pointed out that all of these authors wrote their condemnations in alphabets derived from Phoenician That does rather call the whole small contribution claim into uestion doesn t itThe book does a masterful job of narrating the history of the founding growth trade and cultural relations colonial Cinderella Unmasked (Fairytale Fantasies expansion wars andventual defeat of Carthage This is a difficult task thanks to the relative lack of primary Carthaginian sources Most of the texts we have that describe Carthage and its colonies were written by its foes and thus rather predictably are often myth and propaganda than fact The author combines careful analysis of those sources with archaeology trade records religious syncretism and a dozen other sources to build solid conjectures about how Carthaginian society worked both in Carthage itself and in its clients and colonies in places like Sicily Sardinia and Spain It s a fascinating picture similar to the Greek trade mpire but with intriguing crucial differencesObviously a book like this is going to nd up covering the Punic Wars and the Roman destruction of Carthage as its climax and the author does a wonderful job of providing the The Power Of A Choice economic political cultural and personal factors that led toach strategy and to the outcome of ach campaign The battle for religious legitimacy between Scipio and Hannibal is absolutely amazing I didn t know that armies conducted hearts and minds campaigns in the 2nd century BCE When the nd comes for Carthage it is xcruciating ven knowing the outlines of what happened I was freshly appalled by the Roman perfidy and cruelty involvedAs a coda the author discusses how later Roman sources used the story of Carthage in different ways The Case for Paleolibertarianism and Realignment on the Right either as a warning that the great may always fall or as a proof of Rome s divine destiny to rule I was astonished to learn that Vergil was a bit transgressive in the Aeneid Dido displays all the key Roman virtues of honesty faithfulness and hospitality while Aeneas resorts to lying and sneaking away when he decides that he must fulfill his destiny in Italy I m rather surprised Vergil didn t get in trouble for writing this during the reign of AugustusIn short this book has opened myyes to a world that was always at the dim dge of my understanding of classical Mediterranean history Read this book and you will find marvels awaiting you The title refers to a famous uote of Cato the Elder a Roman statesman about the threat to Rome from Carthage The book is a case study of the rise and fall of Carthage It is very thorough and mostly interesting There are several nice lines in the book One of the interesting is that Carthage was important as an opponent to Rome and the conflictual history with Carthage forced the Roman state to mature in order to survive and thus contributed to the long period of Roman dominance under the Empir highly recommend Miles book for his reconstruction of Carthage s history while trying to minimize the Romans filter For one xample of This Filter Even Our filter Monsieur Pain even our for the civilization and culture Punic comes with its own baggage since Romans used the term in a pejorative and disparaging context Miles spends time on the background and history of Phoenicia showing how thexpansion to Carthage and other areas in the west were motivated by survival rather than greed or glory The view toward the Phoenicians by the Greeks seems to have been a mixed bag There is vidence of Phoenician and Greek cooperation in trade and settlements as the goals of the two states were complementary in some areas Yet as some lines in the Iliad and the Odyssey show there seem to be negative attitudes toward the Phoenicians maybe as a result of the commercial rivalry or in differing views on colonial xpansion In later writings Aristotle praised Carthage s government as xcellent while Plato presented Carthage as a well ordered state Carthage s aims were constantly misrepresented by those that felt threatened by their xpansion With the rise to power of the tyrant Agathocles in Syracuse in the 320s BC Once the totally rroneous but seductive idea that the Sicilian wars conflicts between Carthage and Greek backed Syracuse were a western xtension of the age old struggle between the civilization of Greece and the dark forces of the barbarian East would have renewed capital The resulting war with Agathocles Dare to Lead: Brave Work. Tough Conversations. Whole Hearts. even though ultimately successful would highlight at least two structural problems for Carthage which would return to haunt them during the Punic Wars with Rome The first problem was their reliance on mercenary armies and their unreliability The second problem developed as these armies would become mostly independent institutions outside the control of Carthage s government Carthage and Rome had been on the same side during one of many Sicilian skirmishes but Carthage misplayed its role and Romestablished a secure base in Syracuse From here although neither side seemed to desire war both sides continued Patrick the Wolf Boy, Volume 1 expansionist policies that guaranteed conflict Or as Miles puts it In fact the main antagonists of the First Punic War drifted into the conflict less for reasons of grand strategy and for the lack of political will to prevent it Miles does a good job of following the Punic Wars providingnough detail about the conflicts for the reader to follow without getting bogged down in minutiae At the same to follow without getting bogged down in minutiae At the same he shows how Carthage s and Rome s political actions fit into an central arc that guaranteed continuing war Also of importance he lays out how the different government structures meant very differing approaches to war One xample of the differences Rome with its generalsconsuls having only a one year term would be aggressive in order to conclude a decisive action Carthaginian generals lected for an open term could dictate the pace and style of the conflict and the Romans could do little about it As it turns out during the Second Punic War a change to a temporary autocrat which was allowed by the Roman constitution during an Glitter Bomb (A Scrapbooking Mystery, extreme crisis would allow Rome to pursue longer term strategies against Hannibal andmerge victoriousIn the wake of the First Punic War Carthage underwent a political transformation that no longer balanced aristocratic oligarchic and democratic factions in the manner that Aristotle had admired Foreign policy now became an Il morto di Maigret extension of the factional struggles within and outside the government orven carried out by the military with the government along for the ride Regarding Hannibal the Roman historian Cassius Dio would so astutely point out He was not sent forth in the beginning by the magistrates at home nor later did he obtain any great assistance from them For although they were to njoy no slight glory and benefit from his fforts they wished rather not to appear to be leaving him in the lurch than to cooperate ffectively in any nterprise Miles also reviews how ancient historians covered the Punic Wars and how their biases and mistaken assumptions are reflected in their work Polybius for Globalization: A Multi-Dimensional System, Third Edition example visits the area surrounding the Alps and interviews the locals before writing off Hannibal s mountain crossing as an ordinary occurrence Polybius fails to take into account that the locals he interviewed were Roman settlers relocated after the Second Punic War instead of the Celts that fought Hannibal before heven made it to the Alps There were writers such as Philinus a Sicilian Greek who were sympathetic to Carthage and their views would. This book is the first full scale history of Carthage in decades The devastating struggle to the death between the Carthaginians and the Romans was one of the defining dramas of the ancient world In an pic series of land and sea battles both sides came close to victory. Provide a little influence over later historians Miles makes a convincing display regarding the propaganda used during the conflicts most notably by Hannibal and its ffectiveness both at the time and Sexual Secrets echoed later But Rome as the winner would be able to shape not just the history of Carthage but also their pre history through the works of Romanpic poets The Punic Wars became cast as divinely ordained battles tied to Rome s and Carthage s founding The Aeneas legend was well in place before Virgil but Miles shows how The Aeneid added dramatic flair in addition to fashioning a new Rome under AugustusMiles makes clear that a constant presence throughout this book is the great hero Heracles or Hercules While Heracles was associated with the Punic god Melart and Hannibal chose Heracles Melart as the figurehead of his campaigns the importance of this tie in can feel overstated at times I understand where Miles was going with this approach and agree with many aspects of it but the Heracles presence or influence works symbolically than practically and to be fair Miles notes this on some of his tie ins Also I wanted to note that anyone wanting a history of Rome or a detailed military history should go lsewhere Carthage Must Be Destroyed is truly about the rise and fall of that ancient civilization and while Rome and the battles are given adeuate detail and background the amount included is appropriate for focusing on Carthage s history While mentioning that Carthage featured prominently in Roman literature and history throughout antiuity and providing several of the famous or maybe accessible xamples I would have loved to seen ven instances the footnote on this uote points to another book of his which I may have to seekI ll close with the book s concluding paragraphs with a couple of publishing typos fixed which look at the role Carthage played in Rome s development points that Miles supports throughout the book It is impossible to assess the debt that Rome owed to Carthage with the same confidence as for the debt to Greece We can clearly trace the impact of Greek art science literature tc on Roman culture indeed ducated Romans were often happy to acknowledge that influence Carthage however was afforded no such place in the Roman cultural canon This had little to do with any lack of originality but was at least partly the result of the phenomenal success that the Greeks had in claiming sole ownership of advances that had in fact been the result of centuries of xchange and cross fertilization The cultural marginalization of Carthage was a Greek achievement the city s destruction a Roman one Carthage did however play an important role in the development of the Roman Empire Rome hugely benefited from the appropriation of the Purely Sexual economic and political infrastructure that Carthage had previously put in place in the central and western Mediterranean In Sardinia Sicily North Africa and Spain the Romans inherited not wild virgin lands but a politicallyconomically and culturally joined up world which was Carthage s greatest achievement Less tangible but The West Transformed: A History of Western Civilization, Vol 1, to 1715 eually important was the key role that Carthage played in the creation of a Roman national character The brutal destruction of the city gave the Romans the freedom to transform Carthage into the villainous antitype against which the Roman virtues of faithfulness piety and duty could be applauded As long as the Romans needed proof of their greatness the memory of Carthage would never die Thexchange of luxury goods was at the heart of Bronze Age diplomacy between c3300 BCE and c1200 BCE In order to ngage in high level diplomacy the powers of the Near East reuired access to the relevant materials From our view point of history we can see that Carthage would be destroyedTo the people of that time no one was knew which city would rule the Mediterranean Carthage or Rome The sacred chickens drinkIn 249 BC the Roman consul Publius Claudius Pulcher a man variously described as being mentally unstable an arrogant snob and a drunk decided to launch an attack on the Carthaginian held port of Drepana The mission got off to a rocky start when the sacred chickens used to gauge divine favour went off their feed prompting the impetuous Claudius to throw them overboard with the pithy remark that perhaps they were thirstyIf they won t at then let them drinkHe then went on to lose the battle By the third century BC Rome was on the rise and showing an almost insatiable hunger for conuest the mpires drifted into the first Punic war less for reasons of strategy and for lack of political will to prevent it Rome s nemesis came in the form of Hannibal a ruthless and daring general Departing from Spain in 218BC with 50000 troops Hannibal attempted the unthinkable to invade Italy by land marching through Spain France and the trackless snow covered Alps meeting hostile tribesmen at very turn For all his audacious battles Hannibal still lost to the determined RomansThey make a desolation and they call it peaceThat was the nd of CarthageEnjoy A history of Carthage Insofar as it can be reconstructedNot only were there no Carthaginian histories to
survive there isthere is interesting history of the Greek and Roman histories where the best source may be reconstructed from the uotations taken from another work which also did not survive but drew heavily on the original source There is also some archaeological vidence Carthaginian inscriptions give brief accounts and other information can be pieced together The optimistic claim of arly archaeologists that the claims of sacrificing children were false was too optimistic Considerably vidence for it has turned up include inscriptions that carefully state that the child offered was actually the offspring of the person sacrificing the childThis gets discussed across its history covering its wars its colonies its government insofar as it can be discerned its religion and its interactions with Rome and with other forces allied with one or the other or shifting between The period of the Punic Wars gets covered most thoroughly of course because of the most records including the peaces between with the Mercenaries WarIt covers the campaigns the battles with discussion The Anathema Cell enough of strategy to show how they were won and the sideffectsEverything from the details such as the Carthaginians first coined money to pay off mercenaries in Sicily to the intense fforts of both sides in the Punic War to claim religious sanction and the other side s impiety Hercules was of particular importance and the road he took driving Geryon s cattle was fraught with significance A general whose first act on appointment was to try to counteract the frantic superstitious practice of unauthorized sacrifices and divination by consulting the Sibylline books I found the treatment of RomanGreekCarthaginian syncretism particularly interesting because of my interests in the area it s very well done Finished reading Carthage Must Be Destroyed by Richard MilesWhenever I read a history of a fallen mpire I am always sad at the Pookie-Pie end Read a history of the fall of the Roman Empire last year and I kept rooting for the Romans to pull it together They didn t I felt very sad reading about the fall of Carthage So unnecessaryBut I did learn a lotCarthage was a colony of Tyre a Phoenician island city off the coast of LebanonThe Phoenicians were tremendous mariners and to a certainxtent seeded civilization around the Mediterranean They stablished colonies and trading posts in Egypt Cyprus Greece North Africa Corsica Sardinia Sicily France the Balearics and Spain They settled the Atlantic coasts of Spain Portugal and Morrocco They circumnavigated Africa and sailed to Britain They traded with India and Sri Lanka and visited AustraliaThe two oldest cities in western Europe continuously habitated are Lisbon and Cadiz in Spain both getting their start around 1200 BC Both Phoenician colonies thousands of miles from LebanonThe author spends a lot of time discussing the religion of the Mediterranean peoples including Greeks Phoenicians and Romans and in particular the worship of Heracles All of these people tried to claim him as their own in order to justify a land grab The Romans also had a peculiar habit of performing a ritual called vocatio where they would try to steal an Calling Home enemy s gods and make them their ownven setting up shrines to them This way they could loot and pillage temples without being accused of sacrilegeCarthage was founded 814 BC and stayed loyal to its mother city for centuries sending tribute and temple offerings When Tyre resisted Alexander the Great and was besieged he captured a delegation from Carthage They were released with the warning that Carthage was next After He Conuered AsiaThe he conuered AsiaThe were always tangling with somebody and had a lot of interesting wars and alliances They fought a war against Marseilles a Greek colony on the Riviera They fought a war with Sparta The were allied with Xerxes during his invasion of Greece They were allied with the Etruscans against some of the Greek coloniesThey fought a war that lasted centuries against Syracuse another Greek colony and the largest city in Sicily over who owned Sicily These wars swung in both directions and were ultimately a stalemateThey were allied with the Romans against Pyrrhus from Epirus modern Albania Pyrrhus was a hell of a general and invaded Italy Sicily and Africa The war was a near thing but Roman perseverance wore him down This was how Rome acuired southern Italy and directly preceded the First Punic WarThe First Punic War was a slugfest that lasted 24 years In the nd Roman perseverance paid off and they took over Sicily Carthage then had to fight its own army in the Mercenary War for another three yearsFor the next generation the Barcid clan works on rebuilding their mpire in Spain Finally Hannibal is placed in charge of the army and takes out Saguntum a Roman ally The Second Punic War beginsBeyond a doubt this is my favorite Punic War Hannibal is such an ngaging hero Raised to hate Rome and as a soldier his feats were astounding Operating constantly in hostile territory he overcomes all difficulties He crosses the Pyrenees with lephants He forces a crossing of the Rhone with The Structure of Soviet History: Essays and Documents elephants with hostile Celts in front and a Roman Before the Carthaginians finally succumbed and their capital city history and culture were almost utterlyrased Drawing on a wealth of new archaeological research Richard Miles brings to life this lost mpire from its origins among the Phoenician settlements of Lebanon.