PDF Scarica [Bully for Brontosaurus Reflections in Natural History] Autore Stephen Jay Gould

Ust one bit the essay Male Nipples and Clitoral Ripples with its shocking claim that only 30% of women orgasm from PIV intercourse scandalised me He bases this on the notably shoddy work of Kinsey and Hite but it may be worse than that The main point of that piece using the pleasure poor design of the two genitalia to attack a straw man view he calls hyperadaptationism had less effect on me luckilyThere are odd synopses of each essay hereI give general reasons to distrust Gould here This review was written in September 1991 not long after the book s publicationStephen Jay Gould has been writing monthly essays for Natural History magazine for over eighteen years and he has gotten pretty good at it by now His newest collection is the best one so far While Gould has always been able to impress with the depth and breadth of his scientific knowledge this collection contains personal insight humor and humility than some of his previous workGould makes no secret of his intellectual passions baseball the French Revolution geology science and scientists of the 19th century dinosaurs classical music and evolutionary theory Not every one of his readers shares these passions of course I for one have always been bored by baseball but he has a gift for making his subjects come alive regardless of what he writes about For example one essay The Chain of Reason versus the Chain of I read the first half of this book about 10 years ago and went back a few days ago to read the rest Why the break It was a good readI have no idea why I came to a haltHaving finished the book I went back and looked at some of the earlier essays Bully For Brontosaurusa wonderful discussion about the rules governing how zoologists name animals These rules are laid out in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature and the 1985 edition runs to 338 pages That is a lot of regulation Gould s discussion centred on issues around a set dinosaur stamps issued by the post office and people s objections to the name given to one of these critters and what he felt the proper response ought to have been The essay gave marvellous insights into the process and variables of naming and what Gould felt ought to take priorityI also couldn t resist re reading The Panda s Thumb Of Technology a wonderfully funny and interesting essay on how we ended up using the WERTY keyboard The story was as eccentric and fascinating as the keyboard itself Besides being an academic giant Gould was well linked to typewriters his father was a court stenographer his mother a typist and Gould himself was still using a typewriter in 1991To be honest though I was less smitten with the later essays I read like an outsider Gould s passion for planets in The Face of Miranda This is undoubtedly my shortcoming not his I ust can t get excited by astronomy Several other essays under the heading Evolution and Creation dealt with the arguments put up by people who have defended creationism and the counter arguments Again not a subject that presses my buttons It feels like arguing with people who say the world is flat or the sky is going to fall down Life is ust too short Having said that Wikipedia says that a Gallup poll in 2010 showed the 40% of Americans still believe in a strict interpretation of creationism This suggests that many arguments against creationism are needed however much it may seem boring to me I enjoyed the three essays about numbers statistics and probability though I am extremely small brained in this area but even I could sense the wonder and excitement of the ideas Gould was discussing and his enthusiasm is a delight He even managed to infuse me with wonder at Joe DiMaggio achievements in baseball in 1941So for me a bit of a mixed bag but Gould is a wonderful person for me to read I am normally one of those shallow dilettantes that he is so critical of and it does me the world of good to "really immerse myself in and the background to ideas in the "immerse myself in ideas the background to ideas in the Gould makes one do so well in his essays Stephen Jay Gould was adept at reviewing scientific missteps and errors and building telling lessons from them His essays are highly discursive often taking twists and turns through little KNOWN BITS OF HISTORY AND POPULAR CULTURE AS A bits of history and popular culture as a of explicating complex concepts He was a brilliant man and one of those writers like neurologist Oliver Sacks say or biologist EO Wilson who could take abstruse subject matter and make it intelligible to the general reader Though it should be noted no one s style was uite so freewheeling and idiosyncratic as Gould s A few favorite essays include The Panda s Thumb of Technology In which Gould illustrates the evolutionary principles of contingency and incumbency by way of a history of the WERTY keyboard This is certainly among the volume s uirkiest and most brilliant essaysIn Male Nipples and Clitoral Ripples he discusses how male nipples are homologues of female nipples and remnants of embryology ust as the female clitoris is a homologue of the male penis Dr Freud s absurd theory of vaginal orgasm and the unfortunate suffering it caused countless women during the mid 20th century is discussedTo Be A Platypus reviews the immense puzzle this monotreme presented to 20th century scientists because of its melange of seemingly contradictory characteristics large brain and inner ear like mammals egg laying like reptiles duckbill like the eponymous wildfowl etc Because of its paradoxical nature the platypus was viewed for a long time as a primitive outlier that had never really caught up with the high and mighty mammals Gould shows not only why this isn t so but why the creature is as he puts it one honey of an adaptationThe section titled Intellectual Biography I found especially interesting In Kropotkin Was No Crackpot Gould rehabilitates that fin de si cle Russian anarchist s much maligned reputation Petr Kropotkin see Mutual Aid believed cooperation was responsible for the perpetuation of species than violent struggle a concept far popular in the West Many Russian evolutionists tended to agree Why Was it ust their collectivist socialist culture In part yes but it also turns out that the concept of exploding populations which Darwin learned in the teeming tropics see Voyage of the Beagle was conceptually almost impossible for Russians to grasp living as they did in a harsh and underpopulated land At the center of the essay is the uestion of cultural biases in science an area in which Gould excelled as a writer and a teacher FascinatingFeed your inner nerd read this book. He falsificano la storia e falsano la comprensione della teoria dell’evoluzione È un’opera di divulgazione scientifica di alto livello che consente di portare a conoscenza di un vasto pubblico di lettori i risultati della scienza e che grazie a curiosità trovate accostamenti sorprendenti riferimenti autobiografici rare notizie storiche citazioni humour riesce a suscitare nel lettore il raro piacere dell’intelligenz.

characters ì eBook or Kindle ePUB ☆ Stephen Jay Gould

Bully for Brontosaurus Reflections in Natural HistoryI hadn t read such a large 511 pages large collection of essays by a single author before it proved to be a uniue experience Being a collection of 35 mostly independent essays makes it particularly good for brief reading sessions where you get a complete fully formed message in ust 10 20 pages Gould covers a surprisingly large gamut of topics some familiar to me others totally alien but all with a consistent approach Gould starts with some narrative seemingly unrelated to the topic of the essay and through a few acrobatic twists and turns he cleanly links it to the topic develops his arguments and provides details before closing with an overview and uip or two They don t all follow that precise formula but by the time I got to the final few essays I d anticipated the structure None of that is to say the essays are bad I thoroughly enjoyed uite a few of them and those that I didn t particularly like were short enough to not drag I was most enthralled by the essays on nature of science how it interacts with philosophy history and religion As a professional scientist though not working in natural history I don t get to spend much time day to day considering these lofty uestions concern the fundamentals of science so it was a particular pleasure following SJG on his explorations here I ll admit for some reason I d assumed that this was a very recent publication It s only after getting through 90% of it that I realized it was published in 1991 and the author had died in 2002 I suppose that s excusable as the subject material of the vast majority of the essays is timeless I d recommend this book to scientists students as well as to casual lovers of natural history If you d prefer a small taste before diving in many of SJG s essays are available online for those on the fence this collection includes at least by his Rahasia Makrifat Nabi Khidir a.s. judgement the best of them Definitely a favorite author Great historical perspective on a wide variety of topics ranging from history of science including current ish science education to topical stories and ties them together seemlessly The essays are good for people who have curious minds notust of interest to scientists And of course probably left over since childhood topics dealing with dinosaurs that give information always entertain me I ve read two other essay collections by Gould before this one and this is or less the same as those uite goodHowever I m not sure if it s Gould or whether it s the essay format but I m really tired of the freuent reference and name dropping that seems to serve few other purposes but the author s vanity look what I ve read look what I know look what I can do Why not ust stick to the subject matter let your light shine that way and leave out all the fancy but unnecessary references The Maruis de Condorcet enthusiast of the French Revolution but not radical enough for the Jacobins and therefore force Gould s essays on evolution and natural history inform the reader for sure but as importantly they prompt the reader to uestion our conventional wisdom on not only biology but a whole host of matters He challenges the assumptions of his colleagues he uestions both the religious and the irreligious he examines the ongoing conflicts between evolutionists and creationists all in an engaging funny and personal manner He talks about his experience with cancer which sadly eventually got him and his love of baseball ties together disparate bits of human history to arrive at intriguing observations on causality chance and human Knowledge He Never Lets Us He never lets us that ideology can aid us as well as blind us and that the tools of science are the best we have to learn about our world so long as we don t mistake the map for the road Writing a review of an anthology like Stephen Jay Gould s Bully For Brontosaurus Reflections in Natural History seems a thankless task because one could craft a review for each of Gould s individual essays attempting to synthesize an entire book of them seems almost impossible I have read the essays in this volume over many months some of them than once The anthology is nearly 30 years old but remains an interesting cornucopia of rather analytical stances on scientific uestions the people who were a party to them but also many others including Tolstoy Captain Bligh Kropotkin the Brothers Grimm folks who are uite beyond the normal framework of the world of science It is Gould s wondrous power to form analogies that lifts this book far beyond the ordinaryFor starters I realize every time I read one of the essays that the late Prof Gould had a considerable gift for expression for rendering fairly abstract scientific topics so that they are within the realm of someone without a background in science That said Gould had a extreme fascination with words some uite scientific as befits a Harvard professor but also others many of which are far from common usage Thus some many of us will need to keep a dictionary at the ready Among the rarely heard words is epigone describing a 2nd rate imitator or a follower as of a philosopher a word I have committed to memory plan to use at some point in a GR review but not this one The use of arcane words is a distraction at least until one comes to grips with the author s heightened pleasure with the expansiveness of the English language his often playful use of wordsGould spends time debunking commonly held notions such as in the essay Knight Takes Bishop with regard to the confrontation between Prof Thomas Henry Huxley Darwin s bulldog a prominent cleric of the time ust after Darwin s findings appeared in print Samuel Wilberforce the Bishop of Oxford It turns out that there was no debate merely some opposing statements by the two after a much longer now forgotten oration by a visiting American professor on the Intellectual History of Europe Gould does a kind of postmortem to convey what actually occurred on that long ago day in 1860 tells us that there were no written accounts that the event was embellished over time via the fog of memory by some who were not even present when the 2 figures faced off against one another in an impromptu manner Beyond that it seems that the bishop Was Felt To Have Gotten felt to have gotten better of Prof Huxley in the brief interchange between the twoHere is where it becomes even compelling for in this an ensuing essay Genesis Geology Gould explainsBut no battle exists between science religion the two most separate spheres of human need A titanic struggle occurs always has always will between uestioning authority free inuiry fr. Parti 1 5 di Bully for brontosaurusLo spettro degli argomenti trattati da Gould è assai vario ma ruota attorno al tema centrale della teoria dell’evoluzione e della storia naturale L’evoluzionismo permette di individuare l’operare dell’evoluzione anche in argomenti molto poco tradizionali come l’evoluzione della tastiera della macchina per scrivere e nelle stranezze e negli errori della natura come l’esistenza. Ozen dogma but the institutions representing these poles are not science religion These struggles occur within each field not primarily across disciplines The general ethic of science leads to greater openness but we have our fossils often in positions of great power Organized religion as an arm of state power so freuently in history has tended to rigidity but theologies have also spearheaded social revolution Official religion has not opposed evolution as a monolith many prominent evolutionists have been devout while many churchmen have placed evolution at the center of their personal theologiesGould then concludes the essay by suggesting that the struggle for free inuiry against authority is so central so pervasive that we need all the help we can get from either side and inuiring scientists must CUISINE BORDELAISE, LES GRANDS CLASSIQUES CHAHUTES join hands with uestioning theologians The 2nd of the two linked essays one involving political differences between Disraeli Gladstone begins with some humorous lines from Gilbert Sullivan s Iolanthe and attempts to respond to the uestion In what helpful ways may science religion coexist Gould finds that the lack of correlation in Genesis among the development of animal species is unimportant does not compromise the power purpose of religion or its relationship to the sciences for Genesis is not a treatise on natural history I for one find Prof Gould s dialectic approach to almost everything rather formidable and even upliftingOne of my favorite essays is The Godfather of Disaster which begins with a reference to Gulliver Jonathan Swift s use of satire There is a consideration of a man named William Whiston someone who saw the world in purely theological vs scientific terms who succeeded Sir Isaac Newton at Cambridge recommended in fact by Newton but whose 17th century lens was appropriate to a time when science as a separate subject did not really exist when the world was viewed in terms of divine inspiration alone Yet Gould is sympathetic to Whiston s uirky deductive scheme which was Newtonian in format but not in outcome While demonstrating how Prof Whiston s findings were limited by his worldview so that even while the man s methodology was not unlike Newton s their conclusions differed greatly This essay isust one example of how Prof Gould looks compassionately on historical figures while reexamining past circumstances almost akin to performing an experiment in front of a class The essays are always probing while employing different angles of investigationLiterary Bias on a Slippery Slope examines how we craft stories to make scientific reality palpable finding that a distinguished scientist s statement detailing his own discoveries do not match his own La photographie au reflex numrique pour les Nuls, grand format, 6e dition journals something Prof Gould uncovered while examining theournals at the Smithsonian of Prof Charles Doolittle Walcott 1850 1927 the world s leading expert on Cambrian rocks fossils once the most powerful scientific administrator in America During his time at the Smithsonian examining the Walcott archives Gould concludes that all the key points of the story of Walcott s main discovery are false He indicates that memory is a fascinating trickster that words images have enormous power that can easily displace actual experience over the years For so much of science proceeds by telling stories and we are especially vulnerable to constraints of this medium because we rarely recognize what we are doing with even the most distant abstract subjects like the formation of the universe or the principles of evolution falling within the bounds of necessary unreliable narrative Throughout Bully For Brontosaurus Gould displays a keen interest in history a sardonic wit Who else would title one essay To Be a Platypus while another Male Nipples Clitoral Ripples yet another George Canning s Left Buttock the Origin of Species Always in the midst of articulate statements of scientific purpose Gould seems to insist that we must not devalue past notions simply because they are not in synch with current ideologies In essence Gould s must not devalue past notions simply because they are not in synch with current ideologies In essence Gould s might be viewed a guide to living in a world full of dissension conflict a self help book for humanity The author encourages us to rage against the dying of the light and although Dylan Thomas Spoke Of Bodily Death spoke of bodily death his famous line we must also apply his words to the extinction of wonder in the mind by pressures to conformity in an anti intellectual culture In an essay entitled The Dinosaur Rip Off Prof Gould is impressed that in a New York Times article on science education in Korea a 9 year old girl being interviewed states that Stephen Hawking is her personal hero not some sports star or Hollywood figure apparently in Korea science whizzes are class heroes Gould comments that we livein a profoundly non intellectual culture in America made all the worse by a passive hedonism abetted by the spread of wealth its dissipation into countless electronic devices that impart the latest entertainment in short loud doses of easy listening Can we not invoke dinosaur power to alleviate unspoken tragedies Can t dinosaurs be the great levelers integrators the oint passion of the class rowdy the class intellectual I will know that we are on our way when the kid who names Chasmosaurus as his personal hero also earns the epithet of Mr CoolDinosaurs are to be seen as metaphors as iconic images that can inspire even provoke us Moving on from that thought is Gould s belief that linguistic evolution must be taken seriously as well and he uses analogies to make his point suggesting that the power these analogies convey is important that we must search within language for clues to evolutionary development well beyond analyzing DNA fossils Thus for Gould the tales of the Brothers Grimm are not mere fables but involve a linkage between genetics language and we must never doubt the power of names as Rumpelstiltskin learned to his horror This may seem a leap but in reading the essays by Stephen Jay Gould I see a resemblance to fables or at least an assembling of stories with a scientific bent that holds a fabalistic touchBy way of a caution Bully for Brontosaurus has considerable density is not a book to be read from cover to cover rather it is like a box of fine chocolates to be savored individually over time And rereading the essays can yield greater clarity an additional reward With essays like Male Nipples and Clitoral Ripples you can enjoy science while also being amused by his sense of humor Great writing makes the natural world come alive What fun This meant a lot to me as a teen Di capezzoli nel maschio dell’essere umano e dei mammiferi in generale o il gigantesco uovo di kiwi considerati fenomeni istruttivi proprio perché spiegano meglio della perfezione naturale il funzionamento e il carattere storico dei meccanismi evolutivi La lettura di Bravo Brontosauro è uno dei modi più seri e insieme meno convenzionali e più divertenti per smontare errori e luoghi comuni preconcetti e conformismi
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