[DOWNLOAD] (Proposed Roads to Freedom: Socialism, Anarchism, and Syndicalism)
Gem is Mine but Heart is Yours jRther than that to a point that nobody on Earth has even reached yetHe rejects anarchism as unrealistic and brings up the point that even if the conditions for anarchism arrive nothing is preventing a group from emerging and taking over the others I enjoyed however reading about Kropotkin and his ideas that the industrialization of agriculture would allow civilization to continue with the minimum amount of laborHe rejects Marxism and it s predictions about the future though supports a large degree of socialism even the abolition of private property His preferred shade appears to be guild socialism in which the main employer is not the state but guilds that pass socialistic reforms on their own and are even given representation in government It s hardly a denial of the state s role in leading reforms for socialustice but of a compromise between anarchism and complete state control over the economy You have to give him credit for explicitly recognizing that idealistic bureaucrats tend to become corrupt autocrats regardless of their initial intentions He doesn t like the idea of private property or of people holding on to large amounts of money and one of his curious suggestions is circulating money with an expiration date I think that s would lead to a terrible amount of shortsightedness in societyOf course he looks forward to a post scarcity society though he tries to limit it to the necessities of life Even if we could all have bread for nothing we should not want than a uite limited amountpeople at present enjoy an unlimited water supply but very few leave the taps running when they are not using them I think that the principle of unlimited supply could be adopted in regard to all commodities for which the demand has limits that fall short of what can be easily producedInteresting that he leaves out prices as any sort of factor here Perhaps people don t leave the tap running because even if it costs very little they are trying to save up for other things and are keeping in mind every penny What would happen if you reduce the price of easily produced goods like bread to zero Some people will take very little some people will hoard it How do you know how much to produce Nobody only wants to eat bread That opportunity cost is also something you need to take into account when udging whether a resource is easily producedI actually agree in principle that despite all of these issues the government could provide the bare necessities of life such as food water and clothing though perhaps in shoddy inefficient manner The problem is that people grow used to them and are always wanting and eventually I am absolutely sure that you get to the point where resources or proportions that used to be considered luxuries are going to be demanded as a part of the bare minimum Speaking of such he discusses free education and acknowledges the danger of producing an education bubble but his solution is to provide free education up to the age of 21 by the age of which many would have dropped out due to getting tired of schooling and colleges would then only have to deal with those whom are serious about education This is absolutely not what s happened with the proliferation of higher education and he does not take into account that the schools themselves regardless of whether they would be run by the state or for profit have an interest in keeping as many students as possible for the longest time thus accommodating themselves to interests that correspond to nothing but the subjective whims of their students He discusses basic income and points out that many people who are living off of dividends or a pension etc often still work to make extra money This is probably one of his realistic opinions I don t think basic income is any world ending than welfare The coverage of ART IS VERY INTERESTING AND HE ABSOLUTELY DESPISES ANY is very interesting and he absolutely despises any of system that solves the resource allocation problem by basically establishing a board of censors who gets to approve of who has enough artistic merit to receive government funding He really does hate bureaucracy and laments that the best option is that artists ought to simply live off of their government stipend I mean there s also the possibility of simply having your board filled with nihilists who don t care what ualifies as art but he really is concerned about properly allocating resources especially as everything will be publicly owned This was written at the time of rising social democratic movements all over the world and right as the Russian Revolution took Communism into mainstream geopolitics and you could already tell Russell was not going to be a fan of the authoritarian Soviets In the end it s mostly a compendium of his opinions on reconciling the desire of the utopians with that of realistic reformers Some of his ideas have aged very poorly some are still on the agenda of reformers His opinions probably changed over his lifetime as well I would ve preferred emphasis on the philosophy and history of the various movements Once invited Richard Stallman to give a course on Eliademycom he titles it The road to digital freedom now I found from where he got his inspirationRussell A book in favoure of pure anarchism but also pragmatic that is Utopic to seek such system thus socialism is the 3rd way and the easiest to achieve A good book and good arguments Highlighting the effects of nature and society on man s decision making Russell in his introduction states that THE attempt to conceive imaginatively a better ordering of human society than the destructive and cruel chaos in which mankind has hitherto existed is by no means modernI rather appreciate the intro s second paragraph though where he says The great majority of men and women in ordinary times pass through life without ever contemplating or criticising as a whole either their own conditions or those of the at large They find
Themselves Born Into A Certain Place In born into a certain place and they accept what each day brings forth without any effort of thought beyond what the immediate present reuires Almost as instinctively as the beasts of the field they seek the satisfaction of the needs of the moment without much forethought and without considering that by sufficient effort the whole conditions of their lives could be changed A certain percentage guided by personal ambition make the effort of thought and will which is necessary to place themselves among the fortunate members of the community but very few among these are seriously concerned to secure for all the advantages which they seek for themselves It is only a few rare and exceptional men who have that kind of love toward mankind at large that makes them unable to endure patiently the general mass of evil and suffering regardless of any relation it may have to their own lives to me this theory is uite trueGenerally this is a rather interesting philosophical read I think it also deserves a place on my re read shelf. Our continuing commitment to the preservation of printed works worldwide We appreciate your understanding of the imperfections in the preservation process and hope you enjoy this valuable bo. .
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This book gives a very concise and informative overview of the systems of anarchism syndicalism and socialism and propounds Russell s views as to the most desirable form of societal organisationRegarding Russell s views his attempt to fuse a realistic view of human nature with utopiast inclined anarchic principles results in the position of some extremely good proposals all of which promote the realisation of every type of personality not ust those with greater inclinations towards economically productive activities and realistic measures to ensure that incentives towards the avoidance of idleness exist all enabled by his lack of dogmatism to any one of the three systems However I felt there were a few issues of which I shall only name a few Whilst advocating that everyone should receive an income sufficient for the purchase of all necessities and a certain amount of luxuries however much is economically feasible such that no one is compelled to work he suggests that productive activities might receive greater monetary reward than non productive activities such that there still exists an incentive for the former however this seems dangerously liable to divide society into two distinct classes between which harmony isn t necessarily guaranteed especially considering the porous nature of current capitalistic class boundaries which undeniably reduces conflict His proposal that regarding matters solely concerning the members of particular industries and groups regulative power over those matters should be devolved to those particular groups also seems dangerously liable to create unevenly distributed power bases depending on the sizes and resources of and the particular forms of organisation chosen by a group from which a threat to societal liberty might be mounted and his optimism that following the eradication of private property as workers will be happier and less oppressed they will be productive than current workers who toil out of necessity seems unconvincing rather the converse seems likely for the whole idea of necessity is that it induces work regardless of whether it is desired a desire certain to fluctuateNevertheless the general thrust of his proposals is extremely compelling were he still alive it would have been interesting to see how he might have altered those proposals in light of the emancipatory potential of AI and automation Everyone should read this book This is great for a historic look back at these philosophies This was written almost one hundred years ago so the implications of these different philosophies has changed over the years but we need to know where we have been to figure out where we are going It is by its effects outside economics and politics at least as much as by effects inside them that a social system should be udged Bertrand RussellIn Proposed Roads to Freedom 1918 Bertrand Russell explores the different ways of improving society with the aim to create a better life for everyone a life that is aimed at creation instead possession In a society structured around possession such as the imperialist capitalism or capitalist imperialism of the world around 1918 with the Word War as a sad low point daily life consists of zero sum games The people who own property can force the masses who own next to nothing to do whatever they want In practice this leads to violation of human rights and exploitation of men women and children The needs of one are literally owned by another This is an unwanted situation according to Russell and meThis development started with the Industrial Revolution and
culminated in various political movements that originate in the nineteenth centuryin various political movements that originate in the nineteenth century developed as the political arm of the new leisured classes while socialism developed as an agressive reaction to mass exploitation of workers Both movements provoked a reactionary movement especially on the Continent which used nationalism to placate the masses and violent suppression of opponents to scare the masses into submissionCome 1918 the world was in some ways better off workers had better working conditions and were better paid but only as much as was necessary to stop revolts and strikes but in practice the exploitation and oppression of the masses for productive ends was simply under pressure of socialism anarchism and syndicalism moved to poor countries in the undeveloped world Meanwhile with the World War the interests of the political and economic elites were realized and state control expanded heavily and capital became ever important and hence influentialSo when Russell wrote this book the future was open to any development He realizes this and explores the ways that society can be improved without falling prey to the huge pitfalls of absolute doctrines like socialism and anarchism From the outset Russell explains that socialism the breakdown of the state and the subseuent democratic rule of all citizens owning all property in commune is as bad as the system capitalism which it tries to overthrow Also anarchism is the movement of solitary resentful intellectuals like Bakunin and Kropotkin people who want to break down not ust the state but society as a whole Never mind the practical conseuences How is industrial or even sufficent agricultural production possible in a world full of individuals it will not work to begin with since people are not simply individuals Both socialism and anarchism developed as intellectual movements seeking solutions for social troubles in politics As always most people are practical instead
Of Theoretical People Just Wanttheoretical people ust want lives not better ideas so parallel to these political movements there sprang up an economic or industrial movement syndicalism This is the view that unions of workers can force industries to become both democratic and social in the socialist sense Of course within all these isms there were many many variations depending on the people involved the territory they covered and the times they were part ofFor Russell syndicalism is the way to go He aims for a world in which people enjoy liberty humanity and spiritual fulfilment Capitalism as well as socialism and anarchism are un workable since individual liberties are offered on the alter of abstract ends They also degrade the lives of most people relegating it either to the automatic dull live of a drone capitalism and socialism or to the poverty of Bronze Age Peasants Anarchism Society Should Be Structured To Allow People peasants anarchism Society should be structured to allow people live to be active and to manifest their creative drives and the best way to do this is to allow individual human beings to have the highest amount of freedom autonomy and power as peace and prosperity allow In other words society should be ordered in such a way that bottom up processes and mass participation are fostered at the expense of top down enforcement of the will of a fewIn part 1 Russell sketches the historical developments of socialism anarchism and syndicalism Although intere. This is a reproduction of a book published before 1923 This book may have occasional imperfections such as missing or blurred pages poor pictures errant marks etc that were either part of th. Sting and enlightening it is not a purely historical description Russell selects what he needs from the myriad of sources and injects his own points of view throughout this part In part 2 the book turns into a description of Russell s view of a future society in part as the result of a critical analysis of doctrines and ideas that were described in part 1 The end result is a society which Russell already advocated in broad outlines in his Principles of Social ReconstructionWhy Men Fight 1916 but now a little bit detailedIn both works Russell gaurds himself against following the Utopian trend which started with Plato s Republic and continued through More Godwin and Marx among others to his own time Utopias are almost always the musings of solitary intellectuals who are closed off from everyday communal life therefore they are figments of the imagination which turn into oppressive deadly regimes when put into practice Russell s approach is a compromise in two ways 1 a compromise between different systems in his case capitalism syndicalism and anarchism and 2 a compromise in implementation a step by stem implementation no revolutions much in line with Karl Popper s later notion of piece meal social engineering It is this two dimensional compromise which makes Russell s approach much likeable and workable as a societal improvement compared to alternative systemsIn this sense Proposed Roads to Freedom reads like a well informed pamphlet than a historical analysis of socialism anarchism or syndicalism Not that this is bad per se it s ust not the aim of my reading his work I was hoping for a historical analysis Also he works out the ideas of his Why Men Fight in detail but this in and of itself has little practical value the general ideas and aims are already familiar assuming one has read Why Men Fight while the exact details are much outdated by now I guess you can read Proposed Roads to Freedom as a time capsule of the 1918 future uncertainties How would the new world order look like after the War Would there be any changes in the lives of people all over the world These uestions are hard to answer each region saw its own developments and developments were highly influenced by the post War culture shock and its brain children fascism nazism and communism the Great Depression and World War 2 To conclude I can t really recommend this book Russell s popular book on various left political parties and ideas in the early twentieth century including big shaggy words like Socialism Anarchism Syndicalism Trade Unionism Fabian Socialism I think Russell belonged the Fabian Camp which I am rather sympathetic to I think it is a position once championed by Social Democrats and Democratic Party in its better parts I like Russell and have found most of his opinions surprisingly agreeable even though he lived a century ago with sensibilities very different from our own I think Russell is my favorite political philosopher from these times He comes closest to modern sentiments Russell discusses movements theories to change society to eliminate capitalism s problems He considers socialism Marxism anarchism Bakuninism syndicalism and guild socialism I may differ with an assumption or conclusion but his uestions deserve consideration The book was written 100 years ago so some material is dated and the world has new history developments In 2020 I d say whatever flaws these post capitalist options have the forces of capitalism are driving us off the climate precipiceRussell says those promoting these post capitalist ideas have positive motivations to make life better and they re willing to suffer conseuences for their efforts Yet their frustration with the difficulty in making the
changes can make them hostile to their opponents and may be angry to supporters ofcan make them hostile to their opponents and may be angry to supporters of post capitalist alternativesRussell says something similar to anarchism is a long term goal but anarchism wouldn t succeed especially in the short term He fears state socialism would be bureaucratic and less free He says syndicalism has some of anarchism s weaknesses So he prefers guild socialism sort of parallel syndicalist and general public governments with some oint work I d at least agree with the need for mechanisms TO COUNTERACT BUREAUCRATIC OR AUTHORITARIAN TENDENCIES counteract bureaucratic or authoritarian tendencies a socialist government The history of Communist nations may help us see what protections are needed I d say the current complexity of modern production interrelations of goods and services plus dealing with environment climate and other implications of economic activity suggests the need for a planned economyRussell says state socialism would reuire people to work He suggests a basic income less than workers pay be given to those who don t work or have pursuits not labelled work Or maybe part time ob at part time pay This also lets artists scholars and scientists whose specialties aren t yet accepted to give it a try He says it will also motivate workplaces to make obs agreeable He says it s not enough to raise living standards arts and sciences must be promoted and have freedom He discusses how those whose creation This is an excellent little book promoting a form of guild socialism as opposed to state socialism or pure anarchism It s probably the most anti utopian anti idealist account of a socialist society I ve yet read which isn t to say that it doesn t have its moments It s fair and level headed and it doesn t suppose that abolishing private property will solve all of society s ills The one major complaint I have is that when it comes to economic distribution and production Russell glosses over any apparent problems in his conception of socialism as purely technical problems He seems to have an undue optimism in this regard and accordingly minimizes the very substantial nature any averse conseuences would have in the practicability of a socialist so I was expecting a very analytical in depth but nonetheless very well written and concise explanations
of various left wing movements I ve read Russell s work before and his philosophicalvarious left wing movements I ve read Russell s work before and his philosophical also led me to believe there would be an emphasis on the theories and perhaps intellectual history of each of the movements as wellWhat I got instead was a brief but unimpressive overview of a few movements usually already well trodden ground and then Russell s own opinions which were somewhere between being a realistic progressive and a full blown utopianYou do get an acceptable introduction to socialism syndicalism and anarchism along with some coverage of contemporary politics which of course aged badly and I was hoping would be skipped over in exchange for a theory heavy analysisWhile I was underwhelmed overall I have to admit it was interesting going over Russell s opinions on how close we can get to achieving utopia If I knew he was going to offer his own blueprints on an ideal society I would ve ust expected middle of the road social democracy but he goes way fu. E original artifact or were introduced by the scanning process We believe this work is culturally important and despite the imperfections have elected to bring it back into print as part of.